top of page


The instrumental expected effects of art processes

The process of creation has an instrumental value. By breaking with pre-established plans, it is supposedly suitable for preparing future managers to act in disturbed and changing environments. The processes of creation are characterized by extreme adaptability, improvisation, ad-hoc procedures, variability, and implicitness, among others. The appeal to such ways of doing counters the hegemony of functionalist and controllable processes in traditional management education and practice, and makes more room for experience in management learning and doing. It can be summarized by:

  • The ability to face uncertainty, ambiguity, ill-defined issues

  • and the complexity of contemporary organizations

  • by developing non-logical and non-rational capabilities

  • for perceiving, describing, and relating differently to this complexity;

  • flexible purposing

  • and ad-hoc bricolage (Hatch, 1997; Adler, 2006; Eisner, 2002; Darso, 2004; Barry & Meiseik, 2010; Cunliffe et al., 2002; Sutherland, 2013; Springborg, 2012; Le Theule & Fronda, 2002; Taylor & Ladkin, 2009; Madden & Smith, 2013).


The developmental expected effects of art processes

Art-based methods and processes of creation mobilize an intuitive, sensible, emotional, and embodied experience. From this perspective they have knowledge value. Instead of being oriented toward instrumental goals, their transformative action leads to the development of distinctive thinking skills:

  • mobilize an intuitive, sensible, emotional, and embodied experience.

  • communicate the “ineffable”, a kind of meaning that language is not able to transmit (Biggs, 2004; Eisner, 2002).

  • makes abstract notions tangible (Barry & Meiseik, 2014), represents ideas that are otherwise not easy to process (Eisner, 2002)

  • nurture reflexivity, sensitive engagement, and critical thinking (Sutherland, 2013; Hill & Lloyd, 2015; Statler, 2014; Beirne & Knight, 2007).

  • art does not come with prefabricated and fixed interpretations (Barry & Meisiek, 2014),

  • develops the capacity to tolerate contradictions and paradoxes (Parush & Koivunen, 2014), see and experience the changing world before appropriate concepts and words can describe it (Statler & Guillet de Monthoux, 2015).

  • enable a re-formation of intelligence and give access to a specific form of knowledge (Strati, 2007; Mack, 2013).

  • opens embodied ethics, and an avenue to consciousness (Eisner, 2002).

  • promotes “growth of mind”

  • cognition and perception fuse together (Eisner, 2002a).

  • presentational knowing (Heron and Reason, 1997)

  • implicit embodied knowing requiring aesthetic-artistic forms of representation (Statler & Hansen, 2005)

  • build a bridge between experiential and propositional knowing.

  • use metaphors and analogies

  • ability to deal with contradictions and paradoxes, access to embodied implicit knowledge, consciousness and growth of mind.


The purposeful expected effects of art forms

A first category of effects resides in the direct experience of art forms. The first thing we can say is that experience is immediately affected by the medium. Unlike texts, which we perceive almost identically, regardless of the way they were written, printed, enlarged or spoken, paintings and sculptures are perceived as totally distinct experiences. The first effect of the confrontation with art forms is to trigger our attention to the medium and its materiality. A later effect is that experiencing the art forms mobilizes us through the pleasure and aesthetic satisfaction it makes possible, such as the experience of art-making. Confronting art forms develops the ability to pay attention to the qualitative relationship between disparate elements in order to improve their relationships towards a greater unity. More precisely, the confrontation with art forms opens to:

  • attention to the medium and its materiality.

  • aesthetic satisfaction of action

  • experience of art-making.

  • attention given to relationships and disparateness, heterogeneity and unity (Dewey)

  • attention to the qualitative relationship between disparate elements in order to improve their relationships towards a greater unity.

  • flow : Immersion (capacity to immerse oneself in the task); Play (capacity to shift, see alternatives)


The embedded expected effects of art forms.

A second category of effects resulting from the confrontation with art forms concerns knowledge and can be characterized as the embedding of knowledge in materiality. The inextricability of form and content relates to the specific “art-rooted” form of knowledge, where materiality and intellectuality, cognition and perception, are merged into one. Making judgments is an expression of this specific kind of knowledge based on intimate feelings and convictions that can nevertheless be stated as generalities.

  • embedding knowledge into materiality.

  • inextricability of form and content

  • cognition and perception merged into one.

  • Making judgments based on intimate feelings and convictions can nevertheless be stated as generalities.

ALL Classification

As follows, the results of how ALL members perceived the importance of the following items to describe the outcomes and to assess arts-based methods and processes for higher education.

The expected effects are divided into 4 different colored categories (following Mairesse, 2016, after Taylor and Ladkin 2008):




Embedded (embodied).


Items are ordered on a scale from 5 to 1, where 5 corresponds to the most expected outcomes:


Be open-minded (listen and accept others’ ideas; do not judge people)


Trust intuition
Love working with others to explore ideas.
Practice critical reflexivity
  • Deal with the inextricability of form and content
  • Immerse oneself in the task


Be tolerant of uncertainties
Develop qualitative relationships (between the elements of knowledge; between the people)
Be persistent (do not let myself be distracted, do not give up at the slightest difficulty, carry the project through to the end, whatever the changes)
Learn that cognition is mixed with perception, and creation with reception


  • Embrace unusual experience with enthusiasm
  • Face ambiguity and complexity
  • Generate new ideas and new associations of ideas
  • Experience an aesthetic satisfaction from action
  • Problematize (know how to translate a request into a problematic creative challenge)
  • Anticipate and overcome difficulties
  • Prospective thinking
  • Reinterpret and apply learning in new context
  • Resist to premature closing
  • Discover another kind of learning/ knowing
  • Address public / involve audience
The following items were instead classified as not expected or not prioritized by the ALL team:

Ability to capture the essence of the information involved and to know what is important.

Ability to produce the thinking processes of synthesis and organization, and further

Abstractness of titles

Accept potential failure

Access embodied implicit knowledge

Ad hoc bricolage

Agree to follow a process whose outcome is unknown

Be able to use the creativity process collectively

Be curious (ask questions, look out of the box)

Capacity to give, receive and invite constructive critical feedback, incorporate as needed

Find purpose to what has no definite purpose

Flexibility (different categories / shift in thinking)

Flexible purposing


Fluency (relevant responses)

Focus on making

Importance of the medium

Make judgments

Meaningful contradictions and paradoxes

Mindfulness, growth of mind

Nonlogical nonrational capabilities

Originality (uncommon responses)

Play (capacity to shift, see alternatives)

Use of metaphors, analogies

Assessment Cards

Assessment Methods

bottom of page